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How to add task to cron scheduler on Linux

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The following files restrict access to the scheduler (by default they do not exist):

  • /etc/cron.allow - if it exists, the users specified in this file have the ability to run scheduler jobs,
  • /etc/cron.deny - if exists, the users specified in this file do NOT have the ability to run scheduler jobs.

If cron.allow exists, only users listed in it are allowed to use cron, and the cron.deny file is ignored. If cron.allow does not exist, users specified in cron.deny are not allowed to use the cron scheduler.

The format of the entries in both files is one username on each line. Spaces are not allowed.

Access control files are read every time a user tries to add or remove a cron task.

Crontab Command Options

crontab -eEditing or creating a schedule file for the current user
crontab -lDisplay the contents of the current user's schedule
crontab -rDelete the current user schedule file
crontab -u userWork with schedules of specific users. Only superuser available minute (s) hour (s) day (s) month (s) weekday (s) command (s)

Fields are separated by spaces or tabs. The first five are numerical values, and the sixth is the command that will be executed. The following table briefly describes each of the fields:

FieldValue rangeDescription
minute0-59Team Launch Minute
hour0-23Launch hour
day1-31Start Date (Day)
month1-12Launch month
weekday0 - 6Day of the week of launch (Sunday = 0, Monday = 1, Tuesday = 2, etc.)
commandThe sequence of commands to execute. It can be commands, executable files (for example, scripts) or combinations of files.

Note: the value of the first five fields can be either * (asterisk), which means all valid values, or a list of elements separated by commas. An element is either a numeric or a range of numbers indicated by two values ​​separated by a dash (for example, 10-12).

Examples of using

Running the script every Monday at 9:00 and 18:00:

0 9.18 * * 1 /home/ivan/script.sh

Running the script every day at 0:30 and 12:30:

30 * / 12 * * * script.sh

Running the team every month on the 1st of the day at 12:00:

0 12 1 * * command

Run the script at midnight Monday through Friday:

Crontab team

Crontab is the command used to install, remove, or display the cron configuration file used to manage the cron daemon. Each user can have their own crontab task file, and although these files are stored in / var / spool / cron / crontabs, they are not intended for direct editing. You need to use the crontab command to edit or configure your own cron jobs.

Types of cron configuration files

There are various types of configuration files:

System Frontab: Typically used by system services and critical jobs that require root access privileges. The sixth field (see the description of the field below) is the default username assigned to the command. This gives the system the ability to run commands from different users.

Custom crontab: The user can set their own cron jobs using the crontab command. The sixth field is the command to run, and all commands will be executed from the user who specified them in his own crontab.

Crontab syntax (field description)

Where the numbers indicate:

1: Minutes (0-59)
2: Hours (0-23)
3: Day (0-31)
4: Month (0-12 [12 == December])
5: Day of the week (0-7 [7 or 0 == sunday])
/ path / to / command - the name of the script or command to execute as scheduled

Easy to remember format:

Example

Saving a job list to a file

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Atd and cron daemons

If your computer, suddenly, as it seems, for no reason, starts to search the disk, send you mail, etc., then most likely this is the work of the daemon cron

Michael KoflerLinux Installation, configuration, administration. ”- SPb .: Peter, 2014

So what exactly does this very cron. The daemon is activated with an interval of one minute, checks the files crontab and launches the programs indicated in them. Initially, it is used during the maintenance of the system, but the user can use it to solve their problems.

If you have a regular distribution installed, then you have nothing to worry about, cron installs automatically. If the minimum, then we are not upset - we go to the terminal.

User access to the daemon, configured in the directory / var / spool / cron / tabs / user. Their rights are set in files / cron / allow and / deny. Adding a user to / allow we allow him to execute the command cron, and if you add the user to / deny, on the contrary, the user will be prohibited from using the daemon.

Himself cron configurable in the directory / etc / crontab. File / crontab or files in / etc / cron. d contain a list of commands to be executed. The syntax is as follows:

For example, if I need to ping ya.ru every 15 minutes on behalf of the supervisor, then I need to add the following:

If the symbol * is in any of the first five fields, then this field is ignored. In the previous command, neither a month nor a week is indicated, therefore, it will be executed every 15 minutes. To change the configuration, use the command in the terminal vi or manually change the contents of the file / etc / crontab.

Work with .hourly, .daily, .weekly, .monthly

By default, in almost all distributions, the file / etc / crontab contains just a few entries needed to execute scripts:
/etc/cron.hourly/* - scripts running every hour
/etc/cron.daily/* - scripts running every day
/etc/cron.weekly/* - scripts running every week
/etc/cron.monthly/* - scripts running every month

For the daemon to execute your commands, add the script executing the commands to one of the directories. Remember to set the bit execute (chmod a + x file). If you do not, then your script will simply not have access and it will not be executed!
To check whether your script will run, run the command

If the script is located in a different directory, then change accordingly daily on monthly etc.
And remember, there can be no dots in the script name, any characters except dots. The run-parts command simply ignores dotted scripts, I don’t know why.

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